Caius Iulius Caesar Caligula, born on August 31st 12 AD at Antium was raised by his grandmother Antonio Minor after his mother was sent into exile; his father Germanicus had already died in 19 AD. It was his grandmother Antonia Minor who suggested Tiberius to made Caligula together with Tiberius Gemellus heir of the throne. After Tiberius had passed away, the senate made Caligula emperor. At the beginning, his reign was very peaceful and indulgent, but after a severe illness in late 37 AD, his character had totally changed to that of a brutal tyrant. A bit more than three years later, on January 24th 41 AD, Caligula was murdered by a Praetorian.
2.1. Some general notes
As Tiberius, Caligula didn't change much of the currency system. The Aureus, Denarius and As loose some weight, while the Sestertius and Dupondius become slightly heavier (now 27.25-28.25 resp. +/- 16.00 grams).
The precious metal coins were first continued to be issued by the Lugdunum mint, but Caligula probably soon moved the mint to Rome (not secured). The Aes coinage was struck in Rome.
The main character of Cailgula's portrait was his high forehead.
Different portrait-types of Caligula (Aes).
2.3. The Types
As there were still many coins from his predecessors circulating, Caligula issued coins in minor quantities only. The new coins often show his parents or his sisters.
One of the most famous Caligula coin types shows Caligula on the obverse, surrounded by the legend C CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS PON M TR POT. The reverse shows Caligula standing left on dais with camp chair behind, addressing five soldiers standing right, holding parazonia and shields; four aquilae behind, ADLOCVT COH below. This reverse type was intended to illustrate the close and good relationship between the emperor and his troops.